Job title – Clapper

(Photo by Ale)
 
Love is so wonderful, because it is not restrictive. You can love as much as you want, as many times as you want, as many creatures as you want. I probably could not count all the flamencos I am constantly in love with… but I clearly remember the first flamenco I fell in love with.
 
First name      Carlos
Surname         Grilo
Job title            Clapper/ Palmero
 
As a good feminist, I will not write about how handsome he is, rather about what he does: he claps. He claps for a living!
 
The basis of flamenco is the rhythm, or compás, as they call it in flamenco. In my previous article Compás and co. I have written about the importance of the compás: “The base, the starting point, the walls, the structure of flamenco.” This can be provided by many instruments: firstly, by percussion, drums or the cajón. Among the famous flamenco drummers you can find El Piraña, or my friend, Javi Ruibal. Secondly, rhythm can be provided by clapping, and believe it or not, there are people in flamenco whose main job is to clap only! Clapping basically plays the role of another instrument, without actually having any instrument, other than your hands! To be fair, most clappers also sing or play the guitar, but their primary job on the concerts is to clap. And how they control the rhythm, the sounds, the claps… I find it absolutely fascinating!
 
Fascinating the rhythm itself, the different base for different flamenco forms called ‘palos’, the different accents within the same base. For example the alegría and the bulería have the same 12 beat pattern, but the accents are different, therefore the accompanying clapping is different. Same goes for the tango and the farruca, which have the 4/4 pattern, but the accents are different, hence the clapping is different. 
 
Now if this isn’t beautiful (or complicated) enough, another layer is added with the so called ‘contratiempo’. The space between the beats, a.k.a. the rhythm half way between the whole beats. The use of these half beats and all the variations they allow to create, makes clapping play such an essential role in flamenco. Adding that flamencos love playing with the rhythm, and especially with contratiempo, and you see how it becomes so diverse and difficult! Just listen to Lole and Manuel’s El Río de mi Sevilla.
 
Sometimes clapping is accompanied by the feet – adding another instrument to the music- to support the rhythm and help emphasise, but also allowing the clapper to play with the rhythm and the contratiempo between his “instruments”.
Clapping is always accompanied by ‘jaleo’. Jaleo are words of encouragement, support and enjoyment, that can be added by anyone listening and enjoying flamenco. These vary greatly from olé, arsa, toma que toma, to the names of the artists, like Lucía, Manuel, or just words like agua. Flamenco is very inclusive and probably any word of encouragement is welcome by the artists, but bear in mind the importance of rhythm and that being out of the rhythm is like profanity in flamenco, and make sure you know when and what to say.
 
In 2013 (when I still had time and money…), I went to the Festival in Jerez to participate on two courses organised during the festival: one dancing, one clapping. Back in the day, if you participated in a course, you got free entry to all of the concerts during the festival, which is the greatest deal I have ever known. Even though I was knackered after the two classes, I tirelessly went to the concerts in the evenings and saw the most flamencos within the shortest period of time.
Not sure if the deal still exists, but in any case, the experience is highly recommended to any flamenco lover. Jerez is buzzing during the two weeks of the festival: filled with flamenco lovers, concerts and events, and the smell of spring in the air. 
I met people from all around the world, who came to Jerez just for the festival: Brazilians, Japanese, Italians, French, Germans, Slovakians, and also Spanish. It was a wonderful experience and excellent learning opportunity. The festival in 2019 is dedicated to women (checkout the beautiful poster) and actually starts this week, on the 22nd of February, if anyone has the time and money…
 
Going back to my clapping class, it started with each of us just clapping one or two, so we can listen to the sound of our clap. Before thinking of the rhythm, the compás, the contratiempo, the variations or anything else, we had to make sure, our clap sounded right. I would have never imagined that this would be the difficult part, but there were many people who really struggled producing the right sound. Our teacher, Jerónimo Utrilla was the most patient teacher ever.
Next, we learned about the ‘palma viva’, the vivid clap, and the ‘palma sorda’, the softer clap, and how you can combine them, play with them within the same song, depending on what the music requires and allows. The softer clap is normally used when then singer sings or the guitar has a solo, so it doesn’t interfere, only accompanies.
The variation between the claps adds another layer of beauty and complication to clapping and to flamenco.
 
Worth to mention, that flamenco should not always be imagined with strong and loud clapping; it really depends on the palo, the artists, the production.
 
Listening to another song from Lole y Manuel La plazuela y el tardon, let’s lose ourselves in the rhythm and the claps, and remember all the wonderful people who dedicate their lives to flamenco clapping, like Jerónimo Utrilla, Los Mellis, and my all time favourite, Carlos Grilo…
 
 
 
 

The circle of life

(Photo by Antonio Ojeda Guerrero a.k.a. Antonio III. of Antonio IV. and Antonio V. in June 2017 in La Jara, Sanlúcar de Barrameda, Spain)

As children we listen to the music our parents listen to; only after a certain age we choose for ourselves. To give you an idea about my musical upbringing, meaning what my parents listened to when I was little, we listened to for instance ABBA, Queen, Elton John from the internationals music palette and to LGT, Koncz Zsuzsa and Zorán from the Hungarian. Despite being a scientist, my father has a sensitive soul and has always enjoyed playing and listening to music, not to mention his talent in singing. Even today he sings in a choir in my home town Szombathely, having concerts on local events on both sides of the Austro-Hungarian border.

He has always been a big fan of Zorán, a Hungarian singer and composer with Serbian origin. Zorán and his brother Dusán have formed an outstanding artistic couple for decades: Dusán writing the lyrics for the songs written and performed by Zorán. I must have listened to thousands of their songs as a child, among them to “Volt egy tánc”. Even though I didn’t quite understand what Zorán sang about until I was older, I have totally been mesmerised by the music.

The music. I was in my twenties, when I first listened to Leonard Cohen’s Take this waltz and god, was it a big shock! I told my friends: “I know this song, this is from Zorán, a Hungarian singer.” They laughed and lightened me up that the original is from Cohen, and “the Hungarian guy must have created his own version.”. Really??? Oh wow, that is possible, of course, but what a discovery after having thought throughout my entire lifetime it was Zorán’s song…

The other shock came when I found out that the lyrics of Cohen’s Take this waltz are from  Federico García Lorca’s “A Poet in New York”. It was part of Cohen’s tribute to Lorca (as Lorca was one of his favourite poets) and the song was released as a single, then also included in his album “I’m your man” later on.

But versions do exist, and recently, I found another one. The ONE, I should say. The flamenco version: “Pequeño vals vienés” What would be the world like without a flamenco version, right? And who else could have done it, than the one and only Enrique Morente. I have recently written about him in another post, explaining and praising his art, talent and curiosity. Always interested in new stuff, always wanting to create something different, but with the foundations of flamenco, that he knows so well and is so good at! So here is his version. This song forms part of his album “Omega” with alternative rock group Lagartija Nick, and it is considered one of the most controversial works of Enrique’s career. It counts with the participation of many flamencos, such as Tomatito, Vicente Amigo or Miguel Ángel Cortés, whereby “flamenco and punk rock are mingled with the recreation of Cohen’s song and lyrics from Federico García Lorca’s book “A Poet in New York”. Surprise, surprise. So basically the singer from Granada brought the song back to where it was originally from, where Lorca was from: Granada! What a genius, Enrique Morente.

In the Spanish documentary “Omega” (link to the full version on Youtube) Leonard Cohen shares, how he loved that Enrique made a version of his song. I wonder if he said the same about Zorán’s version. Did he know about it at all?! I can only hope he did…

This is how the circle closes: Zorán – Leonard Cohen – Enrique Morente. The circle of MY life. Starting with me in Hungary, travelling through the international music scene, getting to Spain and to flamenco, and hence back to me again. Olé!

 

Flamencos Today

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I had a think of all the contemporary flamencos I know. Did I miss anyone?!

Lucía Ruibal, Javi Ruibal, Pastora Galván, Israel Galván,

Dorantes, Rocío Márquez,

Rosario la Tremendita, Farruquito, Antonio El Farru, El Carpeta,

David Carpio, La Lupi, Curro de María,

José Quevedo Bolita, Alba Molina, Marina Heredia, Esperanza Fernández,

Guadalupe Torres, Dani de Morón, Diego del Morao,

Antonio Reyes,

Arcángel, Rocío Molina, Patricia Guerrero,

Leonor Leal, Úrsula López, Tomasito, Eva La Yerbabuena, María Terremoto,

Andrés Marín, José Mercé, Dani Casares,

Rafael Riqueni,

Antonio Rey, Tomatito, Mercedes Ruiz, Santiago Lara, Melchora Ortega,

David Lagos, Alfredo Lagos,

Manolo Sanlúcar, Juan Habichuela nieto, Mercedes de Córdoba,

David Palomar, Anabel Rivera, Marco Flores,

María Moreno, Jesús Corbacho, Antonio Molina El Choro,

Ana Morales, Manuel Valencia,

Rosario Toledo, Eduardo Guerrero, Rancapino, Rancapino Chico,

Manuel Liñán,

Lucía Campillo, Jesús Carmona, Diego Carrasco,

Pedro El Granaíno, Ángel Reyes, Adela Campallo, Rafael Campallo,

Karime Amaya,

Alba Heredia, José Maldonado, Antonio Canales,

Alfredo Tejada, Claudia Cruz, Lucía Piñona, Miguel Ángel Cortés,

Laura González, Belén Maya,

Miguel Poveda,

Sara Baras, José Serrano, Rycardo Moreno, Ane Carrasco, Luis de Perikín,

Estrella Morente, Kiki Morente,

Rafael de Utrera, Jesús Guerrero, Olga Pericet, Gema Moneo,

Jesús Méndez, Diego Cigala, Israel Fernández,

Lela Soto, Argentina, Concha Jareño, Patrocinio Hijo,

David de Jacoba, Carlos de Jacoba,

Encarna Anillo, José Anillo, El Cabrero, Mayte Martín,

José Valencia, Tomás de Perrate, Jairo Barrull, Rocío Bazán,

Antonio El Pipa,

María Pagés, Rubén Dantas, María Juncal, Jesús Fernández,

Laura Santamaría, Eduardo Leal,

Los Mellis, Niña Pastori, Pepe Habichuela, Tomasa La Macanita,

Carmen Linares, Tía Juana La Del Pipa,

Alicia Gil, La Fabi,

Potito, María del Mar Moreno, Isabel Bayón, La Chana, Vicente Amigo,

Gerardo Núñez, Carmen Cortés, Rafaela Carrasco,

 Inés Bacán,

Ángel Múñoz, Charo Espino, José Galán, Rafael Rodriguez,

David Carmona, Remedios Amaya, Juana Amaya,

Fuensanta La Moneta, Nano de Jerez,

Anabel Valencia, Rafael Amargo, Carmen Talegona,

Niño Josele, Piraña, El Niño Seve,

Rafael de Utrera, Oscar Lago, Yerai Cortés, Ismael de La Rosa El Bola,

 Luis El Zambo,

Rafael El Zambo, Miguel Salado, Inmaculada Aguilar,

Ezequiel Benítez, David Nieto, María José Llergo,

Raimundo Amador, Rafael Amador, Gema Caballero, Eduardo Garrocho,

José del Tomate, Carlos Grilo,

Miguel Ángel Soto El Londro, Dani Casares, Maria Toledo,

Agustín Diassera, Fahmi Alqhai, Paco Cepero, Pablo Rubén Maldonado,

María José Pérez,

Lole Montoya, Angelita Montoya, Samuel Serrano,

David Carmona, Moisés Vargas, María Mezcle, Antonia Contreras,

Chano Domínguez, Jorge Pardo, Duquende.

Music is not free

Digital age has dawned upon us much earlier than I would have ever imagined. I still remember asking for a Walkman for Christmas, changing carefully the CDs in my CD player, or buying an iPod on a trip to the States. Listening to music anywhere and anytime, is nothing new though. The magic of radio has long been invented, even though on the radio we can only listen to the programs and music offered by the radio channels. Our choices are limited in a way. One can argue though that listening to our choice of music was also possible before Internet was around. We had the walkmans, CD players, but it was always music you either paid for, bought the vinyl, cassette or CD (or copied from a friend…). It needed some physical action to get the music you wanted.

Times have changed. With the evolution of technology and with the invention of internet, we are now able to listen to the music we want, anywhere, anytime, with the click of a button. Perhaps even without paying or having done anything extraordinary. Providers like YouTube offer infinite amount of music and videos available for anyone with internet connection. Quality and origin can be disputed, but it’s there. ITunes offer a big variety of music from all over the world for a relatively cheap price. And with Spotify, music in good quality has been brought to our doorsteps. Yes, it is still limited in a way, but now with Beatles on Spotify, I would say the limit is closer to the sky. And all that, practically for free. With advertising in between songs, it is literally free. Without advertising, and for making music available on your phone, there is a small charge. About 10-15 pounds a month. Is that a realistic price to have a music library of tens of thousands of artists and their numerous albums, radio channels by genre, music lists by theme and occasion?! By subscribing and paying this rather symbolic monthly subscription fee, music is available on any device, without advertising to anyone who has access to internet. Excellent! Music we like, music we want, when we want it, basically for free.

But what about the artists? Do they get paid? Do they get anything for allowing millions to access their creation? Do they get paid for all their hard work? Or publicity and accessibility compensates them?

I am not intending to answer these questions in their entirety. There may not even be one correct answer, responses may differ for each and every artist. Artists at the start of their career, may be happy for getting their name out there via Spotify or getting just a small pay from iTunes; being well paid may not be their number one priority. Once they are better known, their CDs will sell better and more people will go to their concerts. Artists with an established career, will not need such publicity anymore, their priority may simply shift to get paid. It all depends.

What I know for sure is that when you buy a CDs or go to a concert, bigger portion of your money goes to the artists. So I keep buying CDs and go to concerts. Recently, we have bought a HiFi, so we could listen to our CDs at home, because with the evolution of technology, listening to a CD is also becoming a challenge! We still have a big collection of CDs, including lots of flamenco and loads of jazz… A’s jazz.

Last year on a trip to Madrid, we went to a giant book-music-video store called Fnac, and we bought a number of CDs for our home collection. Photo above. Not strictly all my choice, but a good variety of flamenco artists, all rather traditional, and mostly from earlier days, only a couple contemporary artists and albums.

Just to put the names out there too (from left to right, up and down):

Isabelita de Jerez

Enrique Morente & Sabicas

Lole y Manuel

Paco de Lucía

David Carpio

Ray Heredia

Antonio Flores

Recent news in the UK is the music and film retailer HMV going into administration. For the second time in 6 years (!), but this time around, it seems to be final. This is the result of multiple changes over the past 10 years in our consumer behaviour: buying less music in general, buying less in stores and more online, buying more digital music, and so on. But the trend is there: we spend less on music and this results in businesses going bust, people losing their jobs, artists earning less.

So I encourage everybody to always pay for the music they listen to and keep going to concerts! Let’s support the artists in every possible way, so they can continue creating, and we can enjoy their music!

Did you know…

… that Paco de Lucía spent the last few years of his life living between Mexico and Mallorca?

Did you know that the singers La Niña de los Peines and Tomás Pavón were siblings?

Did you know that Israel Galván and Pastora Galván are siblings?

Did you know that Pastora Pavón has not recognised her husband, Pepe Pinto at the end of her life due to her illness?

Did you know that the guest artist in the dancer Sara Baras’ shows is always the same, José Serrano, because he is her husband?

Did you know that the father of singer María Terremoto, the singer Fernando Terremoto died at the age of 40, and his father, also singer Terremoto de Jerez died at the age of 47?

Did you know that the National Dance Award winner, Rubén Olmo and former dancer of the Ballet Nacional de Andalucía, Eduardo Leal are a couple?

Did you know that the pianist Dorantes is the nephew of the singer El Lebrijano?

Did you know that singer Rocío Márquez and viola player Fahmi Alqhai, who recently published an album together, are neighbours?

Krisztián Nyáry has become famous in Hungary within a few months in 2012, when he started publishing to his friends on Facebook short stories about the personal life of famous Hungarian poets and writers. His stories became so popular, that a publisher offered him to publish the stories in a book. One book followed another, and today he is the author of six books about famous Hungarians and their life stories. The intention of bringing closer to us the already well known figures of literature, fine arts and Hungarian history is utterly brilliant, and I am a devoted fan of Krisztián. I truly respect his idea and all the work and research he has done to help us understand better the people we tirelessly learn about in school.

My intention is similar. Bringing closer to everyone the flamenco artists and the art of flamenco by sharing stories, interesting facts, upcoming events and my experience and opinion.

I have started this blog in 2018 to share my flamenco love with the world and if time allows, I would like to continue in 2019 too. So if you did not know some or any of the above things, I invite you to join me on this journey throughout the world of flamenco in this coming year. Let’s get 2019 started!

Boldog karácsonyt!

Christmas for me has always been white and cold, peaceful and quiet, intimate and family oriented. But then I fell in love with a boy from the south of Spain and got to know a different kind of Christmas. Still European, not hot and sunny, but a totally different celebration in a totally different atmosphere. Cultural shock at its best, as they teach in university. I found myself in El Puerto de Santa María, in Cádiz, Andalusia, celebrating the holidays with A’s family, where Christmas is neither white nor quiet. It’s still cold to some extent, and very much family oriented, but family has a much wider meaning in the south of Spain. We essentially do the same: eat, drink, sing and gather with our loved ones, but the songs are merrier, the rhythm is sparkier, the instruments are different.

A typical celebration is a gathering to sing and dance together, called the “zambomba”, which is also the instrument, a friction drum, used to accompany Christmas carols. During the weeks leading up to Christmas, many “zambombas” are organised across Andalusia, Jerez being one of the most famous places of all. People gather in family circles or on the main square, eat and drink, sing together, playing the zambomba, playing the guitar, accompanied by clapping, making it all a flamenco event at the same time.

Shocking experience listening to “La virgen gitana“, an example of a Spanish Christmas carol, for someone who grew up listening to Hungarian Christmas carols, like “Pásztorok, pásztorok“.

The point is the same everywhere though: being together, sharing and cherishing moments of life. Lucky us, who have food, a roof above our heads, central heating, running water and jobs to provide for ourselves.

Merry Christmas!

Feliz Navidad!

Boldog karácsonyt!

Enrique Morente

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Eight years. On the 13th of December it will be eight years. I still remember the day he died. The shock, the genuine shock of the world of music.

He was diagnosed with cancer shortly beforehand, and a specialist recommended operating immediately. The operation went well, but complications arose afterwards; a second operation was needed, followed by induced coma, he never woke up again. Not as planned, not as expected. Years at the court searching for justice, but the pain could not be helped. Another genius from the old flamencos gone. I remember the scene at the funeral parlour: his daughter, Estrella singing “Habanera Imposible” and her mother, Aurora, wife of Enrique laying on top of the coffin, crying and screaming, surrounded and supported by the family. Heart-breaking and surprising at the same time, because it was so different from the silent and introverted way of mourning, I have known. Loud, expressive, filled with emotions. It seemed like they let the pain take over everything without any self control. Different culture, different ways of dealing with pain, but the pain is the same for all.

At that time, I didn’t understand why so many musicians were affected so much by the loss of a flamenco singer. Now, I know that he was much more than just a flamenco singer.

Who was Enrique Morente?

Born in the famous Albaicín district of Granada on Christmas Day, in 1942, he started singing in the cathedral of Granada in a group of children, dancing, singing and playing the castanets on religious events, until he was kicked out by one of the priests who considered his voice ugly, explains Juan Verdú in his book, The garden of flamenco (“El jardín del flamenco”). His attraction to flamenco originates from the same time, when he also learned the basics on family and neighbourhood gatherings. He moved to Madrid in his teens to start a professional career in singing, and started in 1964 in peñas flamencas (club for flamenco fans) as “Enrique, el Granaíno” (Enrique from Granada). In the next few years, this was followed by concerts in tablaos, on festivals, contracts with flamenco dance companies, tours in Europe and Japan, and his first album in 1967, with the guitarist Félix de Utrera. “His first recordings were strictly orthodox and showed deep understanding of traditional flamenco, which was a rare quality for singers of his generation.”

But knowing traditional flamenco was only one of his attributes. A motive that followed him through his entire career is that after something traditional, he always got his teeth into something new, something unconventional. These alternations between traditional and innovative flamenco made him controversial among the traditional flamencos and a genius among the risk taker innovators. So for example, after recording an album “Homage to Antonio Chacón” (1977), famous representative of the non-Romani (Gipsy) flamenco and also fundamental figure of the early XX. century flamenco, he recorded an album called “Despegando” (Taking off), in an innovative mood, clearly announcing his intentions. Then in 1982, he recorded some songs that were later chosen by the flamencologist, José Blas Vega to form part of the complete collection of traditional singing styles (Magna Antología del Cante), followed by a return to orthodoxy with the album Morente-Sabicas (1990), with guitarist, Sabicas (photo above).

Then he created a flamenco mass. Not unseen before, but very different from the previous ones. We’d better call it fusion, due to its mixture between traditional flamenco singing and Gregorian chant. What an idea! And once we talk about fusion, obligatory to mention at least some of the music genres he tried to mix with flamenco: classical music,  jazz, rock, music from Senegal, music from Cuba, the choir of Bulgarian voices and so on. There is no end to Morente’s interest in other kinds of music; as he said once: “…if I had to put out a CD for every culture I mixed with, I’d be putting out about 7 or 8 CDs a year.”

Representing the traditional side, he performed a seguiriya in Carlos Saura’s 1995 film “Flamenco” (highly recommended for anyone interested in flamenco!), which was then followed by one of his most controversial works: “Omega” with alternative rock group Lagartija Nick. It counts with the participation of many flamencos, such as Tomatito, Vicente Amigo or Miguel Ángel Cortés, but it was again a new concept, whereby “flamenco and punk rock are mingled with recreations of songs by Leonard Cohen and lyrics from Federico García Lorca’s book “A Poet in New York”, together with traditional flamenco lyrics.”

Today’s post is getting far too long, but it cannot end without mentioning his extensive use of poems as lyrics in the flamenco songs he recorded, paying tribute to poets and writers by recording songs with lyrics from Miguel Hernandez, Federico García Lorca, Antonio Machado and Lope de Vega. He also composed music for theatre plays, films and television, despite not being able to read musical notations. Many albums, many awards, but also much criticism in the 70-80’s from the purists defending the patrimony of Romani/Gipsy in singing. Fortunately, this is now mostly behind us. The artistic intelligence of Enrique Morente and his commitment to flamenco is widely acknowledged and praised.

Simple fans like me realise his genius when finding out that Santiago Lara has a new album dedicated to guitar legend Pat Metheny, but wait, Morente has already performed with Pat Metheny! Or Arcángel announces collaboration with the choir of Bulgarian voices, but Morente has already done that! Miguel Poveda has a new album dedicated to Federico García Lorca (called “Enlorquecido”), but Morente has already done that!

And then we haven’t even talked about how he was as a person. Juan Verdú can tell you all about him, as only a close friend or a brother can. Because they called each other brothers, having spent decades together, Juan accompanying Enrique in his adventures, sharing the best and the most difficult moments. Loving and caring, humble, 100% human, generous (sharing his earnings after the the concerts with his circle of friends , having put the family’s share already away, because family always came first!), leaving a great heritage of wisdom, sense of humor and way of living.

Enrique Morente passed away on the 13th of December 2010. He left behind his wife, Aurora and three children: Estrella, Soleá and Kiki. Estrella has followed the footsteps of her father and has become a flamenco singer, representing everything her father used to. One way or another, Soleá and Kiki are also involved with flamenco.

Today, my farewell goes out to Enrique Morente and to my grandfather. He passed away yesterday, leaving his own heritage behind. The last man of a past generation.

I say goodbye with the song of the close family friend and admired musician: Javier Ruibal: A Morente.